Dismantling Institutional and Structural Racism: Implementation Strategies Across the United States
The field of public administration writes and theorizes a good deal about institutional and structural racism, but as an applied field, we don’t address some of the potential intervention strategies for dismantling racist structures and institutions. This article examines some of the prospective strategies in areas such as reparations, criminal justice, health care, and housing which have been implemented seeking to upend institutional and structural racism in this nation. Policies or programs, unless implemented, create a revolving-door syndrome. However, even when policies are developed and implemented, their efficacy is not always guaranteed, as will be seen. This article discusses how public administration can move away from the “ready, aim, study more” conundrum, and offers suggestions for moving forward to the next frontier.
Agan, Amanda and Sonja Starr. 2016. “Ban the Box, Criminal Records, and Statistical Discrimination: A Field Experiment.” University of. Michigan Law & Economic Research Paper No. 16-012, June 14. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3s/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2795795, accessed February 17, 2022.
Avery, Beth and Han Lu. 2021. “Ban the Box: U.S. Cities, Counties, and States Adopt Fair-Chance Policies to Advance Employment Opportunities for People with Past Convictions.” National Employment Law Project, October. https://www.nelp.org/publication/ban-thebox-fair-chance-hiring-state-and-local-guide/, accessed February 17, 2022.
Bailey, Zinzi D., Nancy Krieger, Agénor, Madina, Jasmine Graves, J., Natalia Linos and Mary T. Bassett. 2017. “Structural Racism and Health Inequities in the USA: Evidence and Interventions.” Lancet, 389(10077), 1453–1463.
Barthel, Margaret. 2019. “Employers Are Still Avoiding Former Inmates.” The Atlantic, November 5. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2019/11/arestates-complying-ban-box-laws/601240/, accessed February 17, 2022.
Bergner, Daniel. 2014. “Is Stop-and-Frisk Worth It?” The Atlantic, April. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/04/is-stop-and-frisk-worthit/358644/, accessed February 28, 2022.
Blessett, Brandi. 2020. Urban Renewal and “Ghetto” Development in Baltimore: Two Sides of the Same Coin. American Review of Public Administration, 50(8): 838–850.
Brown, Debbie-Marie and Richard Cahan. 2022. “Evanston Reparations Begin: Random Drawing Selects 16 Black ‘Ancestors’ to Receive $25,000 Grants.” Evanston Roundtable, January 13. https://evanstonroundtable.com/2022/01/13/evanston-reparations-begin-random-drawing/, accessed February 15, 2022.
Brown, DeNeen L. 2021. “Lynchings in Mississippi Never Stopped.” Washington Post, August 8. https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2021/08/08/modern-day-mississippi-lynchings/, accessed March 14, 2022.
Brown, K. Steven, Kilolo Kijakazi, “Charmaine Runes and Margery Austin Turner. 2019. Confronting Structural Racism in Research and Policy Analysis: Charting a Course for Policy Research Institutions.” The Urban Institute, February. https://www.urban.org/research/publication/confronting-structural-racismresearch-and-policy-analysis, accessed February 14, 2022.
Brown, Maya and Emma Tucker. 2021. “Philadelphia to Become First Major US City to Ban Police from Stopping Drivers for Low-Level Traffic Violations.” CNN, October 30. https://www.cnn.com/2021/10/30/us/philadelphia-driving-equality-bill/index.html, accessed February 28, 2022.
Brownstein, Ronald. 2020. “The Partisan Chasm over ‘Systemic Racism’ Is on Full Display. CNN, June 9. https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/08/politics/2020-election-racism-partisan-view/index.html, accessed February 25, 2022.
Brunson, Rod K. 2007. “Police Don’t Like Black People: African-American Young Men’s Accumulated Police Experiences.” Criminology & Public Policy, 6 (1):71–101.
Carson, E. Ann and Elizabeth Anderson. 2016. “Prisoners in 2015.” Washington, DC. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, December. https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p15.pdf, accessed February 17, 2022.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2013. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report—United States, 2013. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, November 22. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/other/su6203.pdf, accessed February 23,
CDC. No date. CDC’s Efforts to Address Racism as a Fundamental Driver of Health Disparities. https://www.cdc.gov/healthequity/racism-disparities/cdcefforts.html195, accessed February 23, 2022.
City of Baltimore v. Wells Fargo. 2008. 1:08-cv-00062 ( D. Md. ) January 8. https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/maryland/mddce/1:2008cv00062/155559/141/, accessed February 22, 2022.
Clark, Simon. 2020. “How White Supremacy Returned to Mainstream Politics. Center for American Progress,” July 1. https://www.americanprogress.org/article/white-supremacy-returned-mainstream-politics/, accessed March 2, 2022.
Coates, Ta-Neheshi. 2014. “The Case for Reparations.” The Atlantic, June. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/06/the-case-for-reparations/361631/, February 17, 2022.
Cochrane, Emily 2022. “House Passes Bill to Make Lynching a Federal Hate Crime.” New York Times. March 1, A15.
Craigie, Terry-Ann. 2020. “Ban the Box, Convictions, and Public Sector Employment.” Economic Inquiry, 58(1): 425–445.
Cummings, Janet R., Hefei Wen, Michelle Ko and Benjamin G. Druss. 2014. “Race/Ethnicity and Geographic Access to Medicaid Substance Use Disorder Treatment Facilities in the United States.” JAMA Psychiatry, 71(2): 190–196.
Dimick Justin, Joel Ruhter, Mary Vaughan Sarrazin and John D. Birkmeyer. 2013. “Black Patients Are More Likely than Whites to Undergo Surgery at Low-Quality Hospitals in Segregated Regions.” Health Affairs, 32(6): 1046–1053.
Dixon, Peter. 2020. “U.S. Cities and States Are Discussing Reparations for Black Americans. Here’s What’s Key.” Washington Post, August 24. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/08/24/us-cities-states-are-discussing-reparations-black-americans-heres-whats-key/, accessed February 15, 2022.
Doleac, Jennifer L. and Benjamin Hansen. 2020. “The Unintended Consequences of ‘Ban the Box’: Statistical Discrimination and Employment Outcomes When Criminal Histories Are Hidden.” Journal of Labor Economics, 38(2): 321–374.
Dooley, Ty Price. 2021. “The undelivered dream: Policing, administrative rules and social equity.” Administrative Theory & Praxis, Online first, DOI: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10841806.2021.1959166
Epp, Charles R., Steven Maynard-Moody, and Donald Haider-Markel. 2014. Pulled Over: How police Stops Define Race and Citizenship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Epp, Charles R., Steven Maynard-Moody, and Donald Haider-Markel. 2017. “Beyond Profiling: The Institutional Sources of Racial Disparities in Policing.” Public Administration Review, 77(2): 168–178.
Equity and Social Justice Strategic Plan, 2016–2022. King County, Washington. https://kingcounty.gov/~/media/elected/executive/equity-social-justice/documents/201609-ESJ-SP-6GAs.ashx?la=en, accessed February 22, 2022.
Federal Register. 2021. Executive Order 13985. Advancing Racial Equity and Support for Underserved Communities Through the Federal Government. Washington, DC. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2021/01/25/2021-01753/advancing-racial-
equity-and-support-for-underserved-communities-through-the-federal-government, accessed March 18, 2022.
Felton, Emmanuel. 2022. “Supporters Say They Have the Votes in the House to Pass a Reparations Bill After Years of Lobbying.” Washington Post, February 25. https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2022/02/25/reparations-bill-congress-support/, accessed March 18, 2022.
Flake, Dallan F. 2019. “Do Ban-the-Box Laws Really Work?” Iowa Law Review, 104(3): 1079–1127.
Floyd v. City of New York , 959 F.Supp.2d 668 (S.D.N.Y. 2013).
Ghandnoosh, Nazgol. 2021. “Can We Wait 60 Years to Cut the Prison Population in Half? Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.” https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/can-we-wait-60-years-to-cutthe-prison-population-in-half/, accessed February 17, 2022.
Gilbert, Keon L. and Rashawn Ray. 2016. “Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity.” Journal of Urban Health, 93(S1): 122–140.
Glaude Jr., Eddie S. 2020. James Baldwin Insisted We Tell the Truth About This Country. The Truth Is, We’ve Been Here Before. Time, June 25. https://time.com/5859214/james-baldwin-racism/, accessed March 14, 2022.
Gooden, Susan T. 2008. “The Politics of Ready, Aim. . . .Study More: Implementing the ‘‘Fire’ in in Race and Public Policy Research.” Journal of Race & Policy, 4(l): 7–21.
Gorner, Jeremy. 2015. “ACLU, Chicago Police Agree to Changes on Controversial Street Stops.” Chicago Tribune, August 7. https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ctchicago-police-aclu-street-stops-met-20150807-story.html, accessed February 28, 2022.
Gray, Fred D. 2013. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study: The Real Story and Beyond. Montgomery, Alabama: New South Books.
Greenberg, David F. 2014. “Studying New York City’s Crime Decline: Methodological Issues.” Justice Quarterly, 31(1): 154–188.
Grynbaum, Michael M. 2014. “Taking Office, de Blasio Vows to Fix Inequity.” New York Times, January 1. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/02/nyregion/billde-blasio-inauguration.html, accessed February 15, 2022.
Hsia, Renee Yuen-Jan and Yu-Chu Shen. 2011. “Rising Closures of Hospital Trauma Centers Disproportionately Burden Vulnerable Populations.” Health Affairs, 30(10): 1912–1920.
Hudak, Amy. 2022. “Changes Proposed to City’s ‘Stopand-Frisk’ Policy Including Reason Why, Recording on Body Camera.” WPXI-TV, January 18. https://www.wpxi.com/news/top-stories/changes-proposed-citysstop-and-frisk-policy-including-reason-why-recording-body-camera/JFKVYZBLGVGPXAAP6W6HCQKT3Q/, accessed February 28, 2022.
Humphrey, Nicole M. 2021. “Racialized Emotional Labor: An Unseen Burden in the Public Sector.” Administration & Society, online first, https://doi.org/10.1177/00953997211037583
Jackson, Osborne and Bo Zhao. 2017. “The Effect of Changing Employers’ Access to Criminal Histories on Ex-Offenders’ Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from the 2010–2012 Massachusetts CORI Reform.” Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Working Paper No.16-30, February 1.https://www.bostonfed.org/-/media/Documents/Workingpapers/PDF/wp1630.pdf, accessed February 17, 2022.
Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies. 2008. Organizing to Address Minority Health Disparities: A Directory of State and Local Initiatives. Washington, DC, July. http://www.prrac.org/pdf/HealthDirectory.pdf, accessed March 2, 2022.
Kajstura, Aleks. 2019. “Women’s Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2019. Prison Policy Initiative,” October 29. https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2019women.html, accessed February 22, 2022.
Kelliher, Rebecca. 2022. “What’s Next for Pell Grants for Incarcerated Students.” Diverse Issues in Higher Education. January 4. https://www.diverseeducation.com/leadership-policy/article/15286789/whats-next-forpell-grants-to-incarcerated-students, accessed April 29, 2022.
Kendall, Brent. 2011. “Victims Sought in Countrywide Case.” Wall Street Journal, December 27. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970203686204577116860378024808, accessed February 22, 2022.
Krieghbaum, Andrew. 2018. “New Push to Drop Drug Offenses as Barrier to Student Aid. Inside Higher Ed,” March 7. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2018/03/07/higher-ed-groups-want-end-student-aid-restrictions-applicants-drug-convictions, accessed April 29, 2022
Kwiatkowski, Kat, Kathryn Coe, John C. Bailar and G. Marie Swanson. 2013. Inclusion of Minorities and Women in Cancer Clinical Trials, a Decade Later: Have We Improved? Cancer, 119(16): 2956–2963.
Lane, Haley M., Rachel Morello-Frosch, Julian D. Marshall and Joshua S. Apte. 2022. “Historical Redlining Is Associated with Present-Day Air Pollution Disparities in U.S. Cities.” Environmental Science & Technology, https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.estlett.1c01012, accessed March 14, 2022.
Lartey, Jamiles. 2020. “Why It’s Not So Simple To Arrest The Cops Who Shot Breonna Taylor. The Marshall Project,” August 8. https://www.themarshallproject.org/2020/08/08/why-it-s-not-so-simple-to-arrest-thecops-who-shot-breonna-taylor, accessed February 22, 2022.
Lewis-Burke. 2021. Federal Efforts and Opportunities to Broaden Participation and Address Racial Equity in Research and Education. Lewis-Burke Associates, LLC, Washington, DC, December 16. https://www.depts.https://www.depts.ttu.edu/research/protected/2021FederalEffortsinBroadeningParticipation.pdf/, accessed March 18, 2022.
Loh, Tracy Hadden, Christopher Coes and Becca Buthe. 2020. “Separate and Unequal: Persistent Residential Segregation Is Sustaining Racial and Economic Injustice in the U.S.” Brookings Institution, December 16. https://www.brookings.edu/essay/trend-1-separateand-unequal-neighborhoods-are-sustaining-racialand-economic-injustice-in-the-us/, accessed February 10, 2022.
Meyer, Laura. 2021. “Recovery Package Must Include Subsidized Employment to Support Returning Citizens. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities,” May 20. https://www.cbpp.org/blog/recovery-package-must-include-subsidized-employment-to-support-returning-
citizens, accessed February 18, 2022.
Mui, Ylan Q. 2012. Wells Fargo, Justice Department Settle Discrimination Case for $175 million. Washington Post, July 12. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/wells-fargo-justicedepartment-settle-discrimination-case-for-175-million/2012/07/12/gJQAX66ZgW_story.html, accessed February 10, 2022.
National League of Cities. n.d. Repository of City Racial Equity Policies and Decisions. https://www.nlc.org/resource/repository-of-city-racial-equity-policies-and-decisions/, accessed February 22, 2022.
Nellis, Ashley. 2020. “The Color of Justice: Racial and Ethnic Disparity in State Prisons.” Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project, October 13. https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/color-of-justiceracial-and-ethnic-disparity-in-state-prisons/, accessed February 17, 2022.
New York City Bar Association. 2021. A Pathway Out of Mass Incarceration and Towards a New Criminal Justice System: Recommendations for the New York State Legislature. Association of the Bar of the City of New York, May. https://www.nycbar.org/member-and-career-services/committees/reports-listing/reports/detail/a-pathway-out-of-mass-incarceration, accessed February 17, 2022.
Nicholson-Crotty, Sean, Jill Nicholson-Crotty and Sergio Fernandez. 2017. “Will More Black Cops Matter? Officer Race and Police-Involved Homicides of Black Citizens.” Public Administration Review, 77(2): 206–216.
Othering & Belonging Institute. 2021. The Roots of Structural Racism Project. University of California-Berkeley, June 30. https://belonging.berkeley.edu/roots-structural-racism, accessed February 24, 2022.
Pager, Devah. 2007. Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Pearson, Jake. 2014. “New York Fire Department Settles Discrimination Lawsuit.” The Ledger, March 18. https://www.theledger.com/story/news/2014/03/19/new-yorkfire-department-settles/8170005007/, accessed February 15, 2022.
Porter, Nicole D. 2021. “Top Trends in State Criminal Justice Reform, 2020. Washington DC: The Sentencing Project,” January 15. https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/top-trends-in-state-criminal-justice-reform-2020/, accessed February 17, 2022.
Portillo, Shannon, Domonic Bearfield and Nicole Humphrey. 2020. The Myth of Bureaucratic Neutrality: Institutionalized Inequity in Local Government Hiring. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 40(3): 516–531.
Race and Social Justice Initiative (RSJI), 2019–2021. Seattle, Washington. https://www.seattle.gov/rsji, accessed
February 22, 2022.
Racial Equity & Social Justice Initiative. 2018. Madison, Wisconsin. https://www.cityofmadison.com/civil-rights/programs/racial-equity-social-justice-initiative, accessed February 22, 2022.
Radley, David C., Jesse C. Baumgartner, Sara R. Collins, Laurie Zephyrin and Eric C. Schneider. 2021. “Achieving Racial and Ethnic Equity in U.S. Health Care: A Scorecard of State Performance.” The Commonwealth Fund, November. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/sites/default/files/2021-11/Radley_racial_ethnic_equity_state_scorecard_r.pdf, accessed March 3, 2022.
Ramaswamy, Megha and Patricia J. Kelly. 2015. “Institutional Racism as a Critical Social Determinant of Health.” Public Health Nursing, 32(4): 285–286.
Ray, Rashawn and Andre M. Perry. 2020. “Why We Need Reparations for Black Americans.” Brookings Institution, April 15. https://www.brookings.edu/policy2020/bigideas/why-we-need-reparations-for-blackamericans/, accessed February 15, 2022.
Rengifo, Andres F. and Morgan Pater. 2017. “Close Call: Race and Gender in Encounters with the Police by Black and Latino/a Youth in New York City.” Sociological Inquiry, 87(2): 337–361.
Riccucci, Norma M. 2019. Equality. Public Integrity, 21(6): 632–634.
Riccucci, Norma M. 2022. Critical Race Theory: Exploring its Application to Public Administration. Cambridge Elements Series, Cambridge University Press.
Riccucci, Norma M. and Karina Saldivar, K. 2014. “The Status of Employment Discrimination Suits in Police and Fire Departments Across the United States”. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 34(3): 263–288.
Savage, Charlie. 2012. “Wells Fargo Will Settle Mortgage Bias Charges.” New York Times, July 12. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/13/business/wells-fargo-to-settle-mortgage-discrimination-charges.html, accessed February 10, 2022.
Selsky, Andrew. 2021. “Oregon 1st State to Decriminalize Possession of Drugs. AP News, February 1. https://apnews.com/article/oregon-decriminalize-drug-possession-6843f93c3d55212e0ffbdd8b93be9196, accessed February 22, 2022.
Speri, Alice. 2021. “The NYPD Is Still Stopping and Frisking Black People at Disproportionate Rates.” The Intercept, June 10. https://theintercept.com/2021/06/10/stop-and-frisk-new-york-police-racial-disparity/, accessed February 28, 2022.
Strategic and Racial Equity Action Plan (SREAP), Minneapolis, Minnesota. 2021 https://www2.minneapolismn.gov/government/programs-initiatives/strategic-racial-equity-action-plan/9, accessed February 22, 2022.
Sullivan, Becky. 2020. “How Recommendations of an Obama Task Force Have, And Haven’t, Changed U.S. Policing.” NPR, June 22. https://www.npr.org/2020/06/22/881814431/how-recommendationsof-an-obama-task-force-have-and-havent-changed-us-policing, accessed March 3, 2022.
Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968).
Treisman, Rachel. 2021. In Likely First, Chicago Suburb of Evanston Approves Reparations for Black Residents. NPR, March 23. https://www.npr.org/2021/03/23/980277688/in-likely-first-chicago-suburb-of-evanston-approves-reparations-for-black-reside, accessed February 15, 2022.
Tung, Elizabeth L. David A. Hampton, Marynia Kolak, Selwyn O. Rogers, Joyce P. Yang and Monica E. Peek. 2019. “Race/Ethnicity and Geographic Access to Urban Trauma Care.” JAMA Network Open, 2(3): 1–12.
Ture, Kwame and Charles V. Hamilton. 1967. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation. New York, NY: Random House, 1967.
U.S. and the Vulcan Society v. City of New York, 637 F. Supp. 2d 77 (E.D.N.Y. 2009).
U.S. and the Vulcan Society v. City of New York, 717 F.3d 72 (2d Cir. 2013).
U.S. Department of Justice. 2011. Justice Department Reaches $335 Million Settlement to Resolve Allegations of Lending Discrimination by Countrywide Financial Corporation. December 21. https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-reaches-335-million-settlement-resolve-allegations-lending-discrimination, accessed February 10, 2022.
U.S. Department of Justice. 2012. Justice Department Reaches Settlement with Wells Fargo Resulting in More Than $175 Million in Relief for Homeowners to Resolve Fair Lending Claims. July 12. https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-reaches-settlement-wells-fargo-resulting-more-175-million-relief, accessed February 10, 2022.
U.S. HUD v. Facebook. 2019. Office of Administrative Law Judges, HUD ALJ No. FHEO No. 01-18-0323-8, March 28. https://www.hud.gov/sites/dfiles/Main/documents/HUD_v_Facebook.pdf, accessed March 14, 2022.
Vera Institute of Justice. 2021. Empire State of Incarceration. New York: New York, February 18. https://www.vera.org/empire-state-of-incarceration-2021, accessed February 17, 2022.
Vigdor, Neil. 2020. North Carolina City Approves Reparations for Black Residents. New York Times, July 16. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/16/us/reparationsasheville-nc.html, accessed February 15, 2022.
Walker, Allison T., Philip J Smith and Maureen Kolasa. 2014. Reduction of racial/ethnic disparities in vaccination coverage, 1995–2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63(1): 7–12. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6301a3.htm, accessed February 23, 2022.
Wamsley, Laurel. 2021. “CDC Director Declares Racism A ‘Serious Public Health Threat.’” NPR, April 8. https://www.npr.org/2021/04/08/985524494/cdc-director-declares-racism-a-serious-public-health-threat, accessed February 23, 2022.
Washington Post Staff. 2015. Full text: Donald Trump Announces a Presidential Bid. Washington Post, June 16. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2015/06/16/full-text-donald-trump-announces-a-presidential-bid/?arc404=true, accessed March 2, 2022.
Wright, James E. II and Andrea M. Headley. 2020. Police Use of Force Interactions: Is Race Relevant or Gender Germane? American Review of Public Administration, 50(8): 851–864.
Yu, Helen H. 2022. Policing Reforms in the 21st century: An Examination of Racial Diversity Post-Executive Order 13684. Policing: An International Journal, online first, https://doi.org/10.1108/PIJPSM-10-2021-0147.
Copyright (c) 2022 Domonic A. Bearfield , Nicole Humphrey, Shannon Portillo, Norma M. Riccucci
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.